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German History Timeline — Genesis of German Culture

Now "a few" lines for your history class... wink In other words, to read the entire page of the German History Timeline may take a while. I think approx. 30 minutes.

Anyway, here we go...



The Genesis of the German Culture are the Teutons. The Teutons came from Scandinavia and Denmark. They were divided into many peoples and lived in trunks. Example of peoples: Alamannen, Bastarner, Bavarian, Burgundy, Chatten, Frankonian, Friesian, Gepardian, Goten Thuringia, and Vandal. The religion of the Teutons was polytheistic with large combat glorification. The Teutons learned only by the Romans 113 BC (Christ) together, which resulted in war. The Romans came into Germanic area and created cities, such as Bonna (Bonn) and Colonia (Cologne). Long time however existed the Rhine - Danube - border.

The east Teutons had kings. The kings had different tasks such as to provide for good harvest and war luck etc.. The west Teutons selected a boss, a duke, only in special cases (e.g. in the war). Thing (popular assembly) made the Teutons their politics.

The social structure of the teutons were divided in four groups.

• Aristrocracy (gentlemen, lawyer)
• Free Ones (able-bodied)
• Half Free (distributor for milk, eggs, meat, etc)
• Unfree Ones (rest services)

Only noble and free ones had property. Their houses were built with stables, vegetable garden, field, meadow, river, and forest.

Economics of the Teutons

• cattle breeding – Keeping of small animals (chickens, ducks, geese, etc), Pigs, and cattle (cattle, bull, calf, ox)
• agriculture – Wheat, rye, barley, oats, peas, lenses
• handicraft – Weapons, small box, decoration
• trade with Rome – Skins, amber, slaves, wine

Ascent of the Merowinger

Between 480 and 511 A.D. Chlodwig Merowinger united the Frankish trunks and created the Frankish realm (with seimen death of Paris was the capital). Its politics were bloody: many wars and murder of the old aristocracy. Chlodwig became first Frankish king and (Roman) Christian. Therefore the Pope supports it. The policy of its sons is likewise bloody. Around 540, the Frankish realm reaches up to the Mediterranean. In order to administer the country, the Merowinger established a service aristocracy. Also from the country, the aristocracy administer, may that woll he (and his family) live (= remuneration). Body-own work for the service aristocracy (you...... and must also build, etc. give milk, meat, vegetable). This country borrows the king to the noble one for certain time (that was the beginning of the Deudalismus). Gradually the feudale aristocracy became more powerful. Most famous family has been the Karolinger. The Karolinger Karl Martell (= hammer) triumphed 1732 the Mauren (= Arab) with route and portiers (= central France) with its knight gentleman. Since this the Karolinger the most powerful family is eit in the Franconia realm.


The Teutons farmer (fishermen, hunters) and warriors were original. When the country became larger, one needs a constant army for security. Annually repeats itself the military service came. This system was inefficient. As farmers, humans did not have interest in the continuous military service. On the other hand, one needed well trained warriors. This need (well developed warriors) grew starting from 713 (Spanish peninsula became Moorish). Therefore first (above all) the riders were freed from the agricultural work. They should train daily - armament, horse with stirrup, sign, sword, lance, etc.. With such a knight army defeated 732 (the Karolinger) Karl Martell the Mauren with route and portiers.

Christianization of the Germans

The holy Bonifacius was famous. He was also called Apostel Edut. He converted the Friesen and Hesse (peoples) and based in Bavaria and Hesse Kloester - e.g. Fulda and Geismar (places). Bonifacius received 722 a charter of Karl Martell. It was allowed to fall the Donareiche with Geismar. Bonifacius did not die, and which thought Hesse that the Christianity had to be a powerful religion. Bonifacius gave important rules for the mission. Temples could not be destroyed anymore, instead, should be sprenkled with more holy water. Non-Christian symbols should be replaced by Christian. Many old celebrations remained.

Ascent of the Karolinger

The Merowinger was already very weak. Power lay first with Karl Martell. (732 it had defeated the Mauren, and since 722 he had a very good relationship to the Pope. After his death in 741, his sons took Karl Martell and Pipin the small one. In 747, Karl went into the monastery, Pipin was the exclusive gentleman in the Franconia realm and wanted to become king. And since the Merowinger was weak, the aristocracy supported Pipin. Thus Pipin declared himself for the king. The Pope asked 754 Pipin for assistance against the Langobarden. Pipin agreed and defeated the Langobarden. Afterwards, in 756, Pipin gave the Pope a piece of country in Italy which became the basis of today's Vatican.

Karl the large one (move 468-814)

Also he led many wars and extended the realm to the east. But he had also large interest in education and art, therefore he created a palace school in Aachen. He had, of course, also good connections to the Pope. In 800, the Pope with the Roman aristocracy argued, had to flee, went to Karl who offered him support. Karl gave him military troops; the Pope came back to Rome, and Karl came later after. On December 25th, 800, the Pope Karl crowned to the emperor.

Feudal administration

The Lehen was limited to certain time, then the Lehensnehmer had to return everything to the monarch. They did not want that. They broke the oath and took the country of the monarch into their property.

Basic rule

The noble basic gentlemen were like small kings:

• property at reason
• property at humans
• national rights
• privileges

Petrol the large one

In 936, the last east-Frankonian Karolinger, Ludwig the child died. The country is to 962 kingdom and up to the end of the Hl. of Roman realm → Choice monarchy. 962 petrol king becomes. It would like to eliminate the monarchy of the aristocracy. queen aristocracyness goes to 951 to Italy and releases. This (aristocracyness) was widow, and the count Berengar had her gefange. After release petrol aristocracyness married and became also king of Italy. petrol the Hungary and somewhat late Slawen defeated 955. count Berlengar the Pope, petrol threatened 961 helped the Pope and this kroe2 to the emperor.

14. Realm church and Investiturstreit

Around the power of the Adles to break petrol the large one, where this was possible always, gave feudale right/obligations of the aristocracy at → Bishops and abbotts. The church got thereby national rights; but it had to give petrols somewhat: the Investitur → i.e. the emperor may appoint priests of its confidence bishops and abbotts. Something 100 years later explained. Priest, the church works for the faith, but for the emperor. Their demand: the emperor may not make Investitur. From this the Investiturstreit between emperors and Pope developed. The emperor lost: 1122 are not the emperor this right no more → "Wormser concordat" (contract). Nevertheless the controversy continued, because of Italy. With death Friedrich 2. The emperor position is completely weak. → Again the aristocracy got the advantage.

15. Crusades

1095 said the Pope that the Christian brothers and sisters were threatened by Byzanz. The knights said assistance too became kreuzritter. They went to Byzanz. But: they helped not only the byzantischen emperor, but went beyond the country, pluenderten and created small cross driver states. There were still several crusades, but 1291 had to be vacated the last fortress. 《Motives of the kreuzritter → 1. Religious motive: Assistance for other Christians. 2. Material motives: They wanted booty. 3. Motives of the monarchs: Knights and aristocracy are far way.》Off now a new Edeologie → comes in the Christian evening country; the fair war.

16. Medieval Staatentwichlung

The revival of the cities began in most countries of Europe at royal castles, which were not supplied by body-own. There completely slowly again trade and trades developed. Thus it came we that to the division of labor and to the revival of the money economy. With the town development a need comes: Dealers and trade driving want to protect themselves. Therefore "associations" base.

Gilden (the dealer): support the remote trade, but they protect also the small dealer → living in the city; only these dunur to these may sell in the city.

Guilds (associations of the manufacturing ones) regulate e.g. the training, the wages etc.. Above all they protect against strange competition. Only members of the guild may lead a business. Who member may become, the guilds decide.

17. In the north of Germany an economic combination of cities developed: the Hans federation. The members made trade to Russia. Around 1400 were approx.. 100 cities in the Hans federation organized, the line was in Luebeck.

18. Reformation

The Klerus needed much money starting from approximately 1300 for wars, art, administration. But it began to sell the drain. → Drain letter. 1506 were published for the building of the Peter church in Rome the anniversary drain.

Approximately 10 years later the anniversary drain lengthens 1517 came the monk Johannes Tetzel to Wittenberg. There Martin Luther (1483-1546) was a priest. Tetzel sold many drain letters. And much people came to Luther beichten, but they did not repent their sins. (you gave it only the drain letter.)

Luther did not want to acquit these humans of its sins. Controversy developed, and Luther wrote to bishops and asked for completion of the drain trade. The bishops lehten off, and Luther provided 95 theses, which he fastened on 31 October 1517 to the door of the castle church of Wittenberg. Also Tetzel read the theses and wrote the Pope. From this the conflict Pope developed - for Luther as well as between the Glaeubigen. The controversy became bloody and it always came to wars.

19. Consequences of the reformation

(after Luther came further Reformatoren, which was more radical far than Luther)

1524-1526: Bauernkrieger: A reason: Martin Luther spoke of the liberty of the Christian. Therefore the farmers, them said would have to be free. A goal: Removal of body characteristic (slaves) and Robot. The noble ones and also Luther did not want that.

It came to bloody wars, which lost the farmers. A few years later already began the religionskriege (catholic "boss emperor" against protestanten.) The year 1555 brought the peace: Augsburger Relitionsfriede.

Most important points: The national gentleman (noble one) determines the religion of his subjects (citizens). Starting from approximately 1600 it came recently (again) to the formation of two religious groups.

The Habsburger supported the Gegenreformation, so also in Prague. 1618 came it on the Prager castle to the controversy between catholics and protestanten. And protestanten threw a catholic delegate of the emperor to the window outside to → Prager fenstersturz. With it the dreissigjaehrigen war began (1618-1648). End of the war (1648): Westfaeli peace.

20. Gegenreformation

The GR was decided at the council by Trient (1545-1563).

1) removal of the bad states (drain trade)

2) Gestlegung of the rights and obligations of the Klerus

Establishment of the Jesuitenordens → The Jesuiten learned → to discuss above all;A goal: Protestanten should be recovered.

21. Human and Renaissance

The human which an intellectual and artistic individualism. It moved humans into the center.

(instead of: Theozentrismus, now: Anthropozentrismus)

(opinion: God has the world to create, but humans change it.)

Task of the human (experts) was: political, economical, medical, etc.. To solve problems. They (human) observed, collected, tried from antique knowledge (→Renaissance) e.g. Roman right, Greek architecture......

It developed (first) theories and methods. (the goal is achieved by methodical steps, after examination → correctly, wrongly.) By consistent exact work, they disciplined their fantasy (no speculations) and won confidence into the own reason.

22. Absolutism

With Erstarken of the money economy the taxes in money surden paid. Completely slowly the monarchs could develop civil servants and an army (military). The aristocracy lost at power. High point of the absolutism under Ludwig 14. Of France. The center of the country was the yard (the center of the yard the monarch.) The monarch governed the country like its private household. The yard regulated: Rank (a person), content, ascending and/or descending (a person), relationship of humans to each other (label).

royal family: high officials
personal services
An official

23. Clearing-up

Beginning: Humans is vernunftiges.

1. Conclusion: Because all humans have reason, all humans are alike.

2. Conclusion: Only druch the reason can realizations be won.

Basis of the methods: is dei scientific examination → correct-wrongly

A goal: "slogan" → Think, decide independently (even)

2 main directions:

< rationalism >

The experience is not importantly, only thinking is important. Because: there are sciences, no experience needs (formal sciences) e.g. mathematics, logic......

< empirismus >

New realizations come only from the experience. Because: there are sciences, their sentences win only from the experience (applied science) e.g. physics, Chenie......

Kant solved the controversy: Realizations come from experience. But: the fact that we can experience lies in our spirit.

Representative: Descartes, Leibniz, Hobbes, curl.

Main topics: political, religious, moral-critical topics.

24. National agreement

1801 comes all German Gebielte on the left of the Rhine to France. The emperor is powerless. Therefore he appoints himself 1904 the emperor of Austria. Napoleon appoints himself the emperor of the Frenchmen. 1806 force Napoleon Franz as an emperor of the Hl. Roem. To resign realm. → End of the Hl. Roem. Realm.

In the same year (1806) Prussia began a war against Napoleon; Prussia lost and made reforms and nationalism. Mach the victory over Napoleon → 1814/15: Viennese congress. Europe is again divided.

On the Viennese Kongresss was created two combinations:

1) holy alliance: Their goal was the reestablishment of the absolutism. Means: Police state and informer nature. Boss of the police system. Prince Metternich of members: many European monarchies

2) German federation: 35 monarchies and 4 cities. Guidance: Austria.

1818: Prussian tariff system: Economic combination of north German states; there are there no more tariffs.

1833: German customs union with exception of Austria were all German states in German ZV.

1848/49: Revolution and striking down of the revolution.

1866: Austrian and Prussian war. Austria loses and withdraws from the German federation. Establishment north Germans of the federation → the Prussian king is its president

1870/77: French-German war. France loses and the Prussian king and in January 1871 in Versailles appointed the German emperor.

25. Vormaerz

Means: Police state, informer nature and censorship.

Democratic ideas and the idea of the national agreement were fought.

Economic goals in Germany: Education of a uniform marketing area → Removal of the tariffs.

Beginning of the mass production and slow beginning of the industrialization. Consequences for the workers: large poverty → to 16/17 hours of work time per day; very little wages. Kinderarbeit. In the 20's 19 Jhs. Spain lost all its central and South American colonies, and also Portuguese Brazil freed itself.

Greece developed as own state. 1830 were created Belgium.

Slowly secret organizations developed in many countries, and 1848 came it in many countries of Europe to the revolution. The German revolutionary formed in Frankfurt a first parliament. However the revolution was struck down.

26. Industrielle town development

Originally industries developed, where there were raw materials or energy sources, later came the industries into the city, because there were the market, banks and cheap workers there. But there were also industrialoperates, the cities created, e.g. steel plants → the city meal.

27. German empire

With establishment of the empire the economy erstarkte, but already 1873 came an international economic crisis. Only in the 90's it went with the German economy uphill. And up to the First World War Germany became the strongest economic power of the continent. Problem: Beginning of the economic colonialism.

Foreign policy: Under Bismarck should Germany change countries not to provoke, in order to make for the country no enemies. Under William 2. Bismarck 1890 dismissed, changed the foreign policy: Germany began itself to represent as great power, also militarily.

It came to the colonialism. Therefore also the navy became very large. Aufsuestung and provokante statements favoured the way into the First World War.

Home policy:

With this economic crisis problems relating to domestic affairs developed. Around 1875: Beginning Jew hostileness. The Antisemitismus decreased/went back around 1900 much. But: already there this ideology was.

From this crisis above all the workers had to suffer. Bismarck feared revolutionary actions. In order to reconcile the workers with the state, the social security began into the 1880er years. For worker → Ill one -, accident -, disablement -, and old-age pension.

28. War and end of the monarchy

The First World War: 1914-1918

At the beginning there was large enthusiasm for war. But the war lasted longer than expected. → It came to the war tiredness. In the autumn 1918 was the German army at the end. But some generals wanted to still further-fight. Reaction → 9, November 1918: Proclaiming the republic.

29. Weimar Republic

From the outset: large problems:

1) ways of the war there was a large inflation until 1923

2) many hated the peace treaty of Versailles.

Contents of the Friedensvertargs:

v Germany has the exclusive war debt.

v Germany must deliver parts its country and all colonies.

v Germany may have only 100000 soldiers.

v Germany must pay war debt.

3) many the nannen contract against Versailles "Schandfrieden" and fought the Republic of → above all noble one, officers, parts of the middle class.

4) many work wanted a republic as in the USSR

5) the economic and social situation became starting from 1923 better, but 1929 came the world economic crisis. Millions humans became unemployed.

6) of it profited Hitler, who controlled the Progaganda. To immediately establish in January 1933 will it chancellors of a coalition government, and begins with terror the dictatorship.

30. The LV state (third realm)

The Nazi party 1920 were created. It was first very small, but it received assistance and money from rich citizens. These wanted the dictatorship, of which Hitler always spoke.

Hitler was hardly 1933 at power, introduces he with law the dictatorship. All Michtlinken parties helped it. Result: a few months later the NSDAP was already the only party in Germany. 1934 died realm president Hindenburg its position got Hitler, who called itself only "leaders".

In this time many political opponents of Hitler in concentration camps were already locked up. 1935: Rassengesetze became in Nuernbergerbeschlosser. 1938 came it to large terror opposite the Jews synagogs, Jewish business and dwellings before the Nazis were destroyed. Many Jews came into the KZ; several were killed.

With the outbreak of the Second World War the situation of the Jews worsened: they had to carry yellow stars on their clothes and came finally into the Ghetto. At 1942 the Nazis began the Jews outer gassed. Most well-known KZ (concentration camp) = Auschwitz. The Nazis gassed approximately 6 million Jew.

31. Of the end of the Second World War to the German unit

8, May, 1945: Surrender LV regime. Germany was divided into four occupying destricts.

1948: Currency reform: DM came. Gerlinblockade: West Berlin could be only supplied druch airplanes.

23, May, 1949: The condition of the FRG is read out. FRG originated in to 24, May, 1949.

7, November. 1949: Establishment of the GDR

1953: Worker rebellion in the GDR. Reason: it should be worked more, but the wages were not increased. There were dead ones.

1961: Building of the citizens of Berlin wall.

1963: Establishment of the "death strip" between FRG and GDR.

1963: For the first time "West German ones" could used in the GDR to visit.

1969: Willi Brandt became chancellor and substantial improvements between FRG and GDR

1974: Exchange of "constant representing" of both countries.

November 9th, 1989: Opening of the borders

October 3rd, 1990: Union of Germany (today state holiday)



Phew! What a loooong German History Timeline we have, hugh?

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